{ "timeline": { "headline":"Journey through History", "type":"default", "startDate":"960,1", "text":"

\"Castle at Berkhamsted Castle

Discover the fascinating history of Berkhamsted Castle from 1066 to the 21st Century. Click the next date on the right to begin.

", "asset": { "media":"/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/hp-hero-3.jpg", "credit":"", "caption":"Berkhamsted Castle from the air" }, "date": [ { "startDate":"1066,1", "headline":"Construction of Berkhamsted Castle", "text":"Robert de Mortain, half brother of William the Conqueror begins construction of as castle at Berkhamsted, a strategically significant point on a key route between London and the Midlands through the Chiltern Hills", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/medieval-builders-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\tMedieval construction workers\t\t
Public Domain image" } }, { "startDate":"1066,1", "headline":"The Norman Conquest", "text":"Duke William II of Normandy invades the Kingdom of England and defeats King Harold at Hastings. The Normans advance north and the Saxon nobles surrender to William at\u00a0Beorh\u00f0anst\u00e6d\u00e6<\/i> (Berkhamsted).\u00a0William is crowned King of England in Westminster Abbey on 25 December.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/alderney-tapestry-berkhamsted-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "The submission at Berkhamsted (Berchehasteda) \n- 2013 reconstruction of the last missing panels of the Bayeux Tapestry
\u00a9 Alderney Bayeux Tapestry Finale 2013" } }, { "startDate":"1100,1", "headline":"Death of William; Henry I crowned", "text":"King William dies in a hunting accident. His fourth son Henry seizes the English throne, defeating his elder brother Robert.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/henry-1-chronique-saint-denis-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\tHenry I of England receiving French envoys near Gisors\t\t
Public Domain image\/British Library" } }, { "startDate":"1123,1", "headline":"Castle Administered by Chancellors", "text":"Henry I grants the castle to the Lord Chancellor of England, Randulph (or Ranulf), the first chancellor to administer Berkhamsted Castle.", "asset": { "media":"", "credit":"", "caption": "" } }, { "startDate":"1135,1", "headline":"King Stephen & Empress Matilda", "text":"Stephen is King of England 1135-1154, a reign marked by a bloody civil war across England and Normandy, known as\u00a0The Anarchy<\/em>.\u00a0 The Holy Roman Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I, attempts to take the throne of England. Little is known of Berkhamsted Castle during this turbulent time.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/anarchy-battle-lincoln-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\tThe Battle of Lincoln\t\t
Public Domain image\/British Library" } }, { "startDate":"1155,1", "headline":"Thomas Becket", "text":"As Chancellor of England, Thomas Becket is in charge of the castle and carries out\u00a0\u00a0extensive building works, erecting royal buildings within the bailey. After becoming Archbishop of Canterbury, Becket and Henry II fall out, and Becket is stripped of the Honours of Berkhamsted. Becket is later murdered in Canterbury Cathedral.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Martyrdom_of_Saint_Thomas_Becket-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket (Willem Vrelant, Flemish, c.1460)
Public Domain image\/Getty's Open Content Program" } }, { "startDate":"1156,1", "headline":"Henry II grants Royal Charter to Berkhamsted", "text":"Henry II grants a royal charter to the merchants of Berkhamsted, confirming rights enjoyed under\u00a0Edward the Confessor, and freeing them from tolls and dues. No market\u00a0may be set up within seven miles of the town.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/medieval-market-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"1191,1", "headline":"Richard the Lionheart and Berengaria", "text":"Richard I (\"the Lionheart\") is King of England 1189\u20131199. He mostly resides in Aquitaine, southern France, and during the Third Crusade (1189\u20131192) he is away in the Holy Land fighting Saladin. In 1191, he grants Berkhamsted Castle to Queen Berengaria, but she too is absent, traditionally known as \"the only English queen never to set foot in the country\".", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/richard-berengaria-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\tRichard Coeur de Lion and Queen Berengaria in a boat\t\t
Public Domain image" } }, { "startDate":"1204,1", "headline":"King John grants castle to Queen Isabella", "text":"King John (King of England 1199-1216) grants Berkhamsted Castle to his second wife, Queen Isabella, Countess of Angoul\u00eame.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/queen-isabella-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "Queen Isabella of Angoul\u00eame
Public Domain image" } }, { "startDate":"1216,1", "headline":"The French Siege", "text":"England's barons are in revolt against King John and invite Prince Louis of France to become king of England. The French prince lands and marches on London. King John dies in October 1216, leaving his nine-year-old son Henry III as king. Prince Louis lays siege to Berkhamsted Castle, attacking it with trebuchets. The English surrender after 2 weeks.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/trebuchet-hero-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "Illuminated manuscript from The Crusader Bible, c.1240\n\t\t\t
Public Domain image\/Morgan Library & Museum" } }, { "startDate":"1216,1", "headline":"First Barons’ War", "text":"King John signs the Magna Carta<\/em> in 1215 but then tries to revoke it. England's landowners revolt against John. The Kingdom of England is ravaged by warfare, and the barons invite Prince Louis of France to become king of England.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/hero-barons-war-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "King John (right) battles the Prince Louis VIII of France (British Library)\t\t
Public Domain image\/British Library" } }, { "startDate":"1222,1", "headline":"St Peter’s Church consecrated", "text":"As Berkhamstead town grows around the castle, a new church is consecrated close to the castle. The first known rector of St Peter's Church, Robert de Tuardo, is instituted in 1222 by the Bishop of Lincoln, Hugh of Wells.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/st-peters-market-house-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"1227,1", "headline":"Earldom of Cornwall", "text":"Henry III grants castle to Richard, Earl of Cornwall; from this point, Berkhamsted Castle becomes the administrative centre of the Earldom of Cornwall, which is to become the Duchy of Cornwall a century later.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/richard-of-cornwall-arms-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "Heraldic shield of Richard of Cornwall in Heraldic Shields, in the 'Book Of Additions'\n(Matthew Paris, 1250)
Public Domain image\/British Library" } }, { "startDate":"1270,1", "headline":"Edmund founds Ashridge Priory", "text":"Richard's son Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall, founds a monastery near Berkhamsted, Ashridge Priory, for an\u00a0\u00a0Augustinian monastic order called the Brothers of Penitence (also known as Bonshommes <\/em>or Bluefriars<\/em>). He gives them a holy relic, a phial of the Sacred Blood Of Jesus Christ that he had acquired while travelling in Germany.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/ashridge-priory-1024x683.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\tThe cloister at Ashridge, thought to contain remains of the old Priory\t\t
\u00a9 Robin McMorran" } }, { "startDate":"1280,1", "headline":"Edmund, Earl of Cornwall creates the Deer Park", "text":"Edmund, the 2nd Earl of Cornwall encloses former common land to the north of Berkhamsted Castle to create a new deer park. For centuries, kings and nobles hunt deer here, providing sport for royalty and venison for the Castle larders. It is later expanded by Dukes of Cornwall: by Edward the Black Prince in 1337, and again in 1612 by Charles Stuart (later King Charles I).", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/deer-hunt-hero-1024x683.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "Archer Shooting at Deer
\u00a9 Livre de la Chasse - Unknown artist" } }, { "startDate":"1290,1", "headline":"Edward I holds Parliament at Ashridge", "text":"In medieval England, the English Parliament has no permanent home, sitting wherever the king decides. In 1290 Edward I (King of England 1272\u20131307) holds his Parliament at Ashridge. He also grants the Manor of Berkhamsted to Queen Margaret", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/edward-parliament-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "The English Parliament Meets before Edward (Anon, c.1327)
Public Domain image" } }, { "startDate":"1296,1", "headline":"Edward I takes Scottish prisoners", "text":"King Edward I of England invades Scotland after John Balliol, King of Scots forms an alliance with France. Following the Battle of Dunbar on 28 April 1296, victorious Edward takes many high-status prisoners. A number of Scottish knights are brought south and imprisoned in Berkhamsted Castle.", "asset": { "media":"", "credit":"", "caption": "" } }, { "startDate":"1307,1", "headline":"Edward II and Piers Gaveston", "text":"Shortly after his accession to the throne, King Edward II ennobles his royal favourite, Piers Gaveston, as Earl of Cornwall. Edward \u00a0prefers nearby Kings Langley Palace as his royal residence, and grants Berkhamsted Castle to Gaveston\u00a0. Edward also secures for Gaveston a prestigious wedding to Margaret de Clare at Berkhamsted Castle.Queen Isabella succeeds to the Manor of Berkhamsted.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/edward-II-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "Edward II receiving his crown (Chronicle of England c. 1307-1327)
Public Domain image\/British Library" } }, { "startDate":"1327,1", "headline":"King Edward III crowned", "text":"Edward II is deposed by Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer, and Edward III is crowned King of England aged fourteen. Edward II's second John of Eltham is created Earl of Cornwall and granted possession of Berkhamsted Castle.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/king-edward-3-coronation-2-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"1336,1", "headline":"Edward III Renovates the Castle", "text":"John, Earl of Cornwall, dies and Edward III takes possession of Berkhamsted Castle as his main residence. He begins major renovation work on the dilapidated castle, including repairs to the great tower, the painted chamber, the chapel and defensive walls.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/later-castle-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "Artist's impression of the later Castle, showing the outer and inner bailey and the three-storey tower\t\t
\u00a9 Harry Sheldon 1999" } }, { "startDate":"1337,1", "headline":"Hundred Years’ War begins", "text":"Edward III lays claim to the throne of France, setting in motion the Hundred Years' War, a conflict that would outlast Edward and several of his successors.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/battle-agincourt-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "The Battle of Agincourt, from the 'St. Alban's Chronicle' by Thomas Walsingham (15th C.)
Public Domain image\/Lambeth Palace Library" } }, { "startDate":"1337,1", "headline":"Edward the Black Prince", "text":"Edward III grants Berkhamsted Castle to his eldest son, Edward the Black Prince. The king also\u00a0creates a new title for the prince: Duke of Cornwall<\/em>. The title supersedes the earlier Earl of Cornwall title and is reserved for the heir apparent to the throne of England. The Black Prince who makes Berkhamsted Castle his main residence and expands the hunting grounds, establishing Berkhamsted Castle as the centre of the Duchy of Cornwall.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/edward-iii-edward-black-pri-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "Black Prince receives Aquitaine from King Edward III\n\t\t
Public Domain image\/British Library" } }, { "startDate":"1346,1", "headline":"Battle of Crécy", "text":"During the Hundred Years' War, English forces win a significant victory against France at the Battle of Cr\u00e9cy (26 August 1346).\u00a0A decisive weapon in the battle is the longbow. The English bowmen originated from Berkhamsted, and their participation established the longbow as the dominant weapon on the Western European battlefield for several centuries.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/battle-crecy-hero-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "The Battle of Cr\u00e9cy from Froissart's Chronicles (15th C.)\n\t\t
Public Domain image" } }, { "startDate":"1356,1", "headline":"Battle of Poitiers", "text":"The Battle of Poitiers is fought on 19 September 1356, part of the Hundred Years' War. English forces, led by Edward the Black Prince, defeat French forces and capture King John II of France. He is brought to England and imprisoned in Berkhamsted Castle. Like the Battle of Cr\u00e9cy, England's victory is due to the large contingent of 2,000 longbowmen, many of whom came from Berkhamsted.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/battle-of-poitiers-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\t\t\t\tBowmen fighting at the Battle of Poitiers (1356)\t\t
Public Domain image\/Biblioth\u00e8que nationale de France" } }, { "startDate":"1361,1", "headline":"Joan, Countess of Kent", "text":"Edward the Prince Black Prince marries Joan, countess of Kent and they honeymoon at Berkhamsted Castle.", "asset": { "media":"", "credit":"", "caption": "" } }, { "startDate":"1377,1", "headline":"Richard II", "text":"Richard, son of Edward the Black Prince, is crowned King Richard II at the age of ten. Richard grants Berkhamsted Castle to his favourite court companion, Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland.\u00a0\u00a0Richard also becomes royal patron of St Peter's Church in Berkhamsted, and the Rector, John de Waltham. becomes a favourite and close friend of the king.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/richard-ii-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\tRichard II\t\t
Public Domain image\/Westminster Abbey" } }, { "startDate":"1388,1", "headline":"Robert de Vere exiled", "text":"In 1388, Robert de Vere, who holds Berkhamsted Castle, falls from power and is exiled to France. King Richard II grants the castle to John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/robert-de-vere-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\tRobert de Vere fleeing Radcot Bridge in a boat\t\t
Public Domain image\/Biblioteque Nationale de France" } }, { "startDate":"1389,1", "headline":"Geoffrey Chaucer is Clerk of Works", "text":"In 1389 Geoffrey Chaucer is appointed Clerk of Works at Berkhamsted Castle, Windsor Castle, the Palace of Westminster and the Tower of London.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/chaucer-horseback-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
Public Domain image\/British Library" } }, { "startDate":"1399,1", "headline":"Henry IV Seizes the Throne", "text":"King Richard II is deposed by Henry Bolingbroke, who is crowned King Henry IV. He confers the titles Duke of Cornwall and Prince of Wales on his his son, Henry of Monmouth, and grants to him Berkhamsted Castle.John Holland, who held the castle under Richard, is executed after a failed coup against Henry. Richard dies in captivity in February 1400 and is buried at\u00a0\u00a0King's Langley Priory.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/herny-iv-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\tCoronation of Henry IV, King of England\t\t
Public Domain image\/British Library" } }, { "startDate":"1413,1", "headline":"Henry V crowned King", "text":"Henry rules as King of England 1413-1422. He enjoys outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France, most notably at Agincourt.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/henry-V-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
Public Domain image" } }, { "startDate":"1415,1", "headline":"Battle of Agincourt", "text":"Henry V defeats French forces at the Battle of Agincourt, a decisive battle that shapes European history. English victory is again assured by the use of the English longbow in very large numbers. It is probable that Berkhamsted bowmen played a important part in this battle.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/battle-agincourt-bowmen-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "Bowmen at the Battle of Agincourt (1415) - early 15th C, from the 'Chroniques d\u2019Enguerrand de Monstrelet'\n\t\t
Public Domain image\/Mus\u00e9e de l'arm\u00e9e" } }, { "startDate":"1429,1", "headline":"Henry VI", "text":"Henry VI succeeds to the thrones of both England and France. Aged only nine months, he is the youngest English monarch ever. A Regency council governs the kingdom until 1437.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/henry-vi-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"1455,1", "headline":"Queen Margaret and the Wars of the Roses", "text":"To establish peace with France after the Hundred Years' War, Henry VI marries Margaret of Anjou. Henry grants Berkhamsted Castle to Queen Margaret. Conflict grows within England as the houses of Lancaster and York struggle for power, and the\u00a0Wars of the Roses begin ", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/henry-VI-margaret-of-anjou-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
Public Domain image\/British Library" } }, { "startDate":"1461,1", "headline":"King Edward IV seizes power", "text":"During the Wars of the Roses, Edward IV overthrows Henry VI and confiscates Berkhamsted Castle.\u00a0Henry VI briefly reclaims the throne in 1470, but is deposed again by Edward the following year.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/edward-iv-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\t\t\t\tEdward IV\t\t
Public Domain image" } }, { "startDate":"1469,1", "headline":"Cecily, Duchess of York", "text":"Edward grants Berkhamsted Castle to his mother, Cecily, Duchess of York. The castle has become increasingly unfashionable in senior royal circles, and is now used as Cecily's main residence.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/cicely-neville-hero-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\t\t\t\tCecily Neville\t\t
Public Domain image" } }, { "startDate":"1483,1", "headline":"King Richard III", "text":"

Richard succeeds to the throne,\u00a0the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty.<\/p>", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/richard-iii-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
Public Domain image" } }, { "startDate":"1485,1", "headline":"End of the Wars of the Roses", "text":"

Richard III, the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty, is killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field. The Tudor King Henry VII is crowned, ending the Wars of the Roses.<\/p>", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/battle-of-bosworth-field-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\tBattle of Bosworth by James Doyle\t\t
Public Domain image\/LIFE Photo Archive" } }, { "startDate":"1491,1", "headline":"Henry VIII", "text":"

In the reign of Henry VIII (1509\u20131547), Berkhamsted Castle is largely forgotten. In 1503, the castle in the care of an Under-Keeper for the king. Henry grants the Manor of Berkhamsted his successive wives: in 1509 to Catherine of Aragon, in 1533 to Anne Boleyn, and in 1536 to Jane Seymour, none of whom is known to have visited the town.<\/p>", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/henry-viii-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\tPortrait of Henry VIII\t\t
Public Domain image\/Walker Art Gallery" } }, { "startDate":"1495,1", "headline":"Death of Cecily Neville", "text":"Upon the death of Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, Berkhamsted Castle falls into disuse. Over the years, the abandoned castle goes to ruin.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/hp-hero-4-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"1533,1", "headline":"Elizabeth I", "text":"Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, ascends to the Throne of England.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/elizabeth-i-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"1580,1", "headline":"Berkhamsted Place built from Castle Stones", "text":"Queen Elizabeth I leases the Berkhamsted estate, including the castle ruins and the park, to Sir Edward Carey,for the nominal rent of one red rose each year. He plunders the derelict castle for stones to build Berkhamsted Place, a mansion house at the top of Castle Hill in Berkhamsted.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/berkhamsted-place-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\t\t\t\tBerkhamsted Place \t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"1616,1", "headline":"Charles, Prince of Wales, visits Berkhamsted", "text":"

The Prince of Wales, Prince Charles (later to become King Charles I) visits Berkhamsted. He visits his tutor, Thomas Murray, who leases Berkhamsted Place from the prince.<\/p>", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/charles-I-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\t\t\t\t\t\t
Public Domain image" } }, { "startDate":"1628,1", "headline":"King Charles I turns the deer park over to farmland", "text":"King Charles I disemparks a large part of the ancient deer park, turning most of it over to farming. This leaves just 151 hectares of the inner deer park.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/farmland-hero-1024x683.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "
" } }, { "startDate":"1700,1", "headline":"Castle in ruins", "text":"Berkhamsted Castle is now in ruins. Historians of the time record that most of the outer walls and chimneys are still standing, with windows visible and the remains of the chapel and a staircase still visible. The ruins often feature in paintings and drawings by local artists.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/castle-engraving-sparrow-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\t\t\t\t18th century print of Castle by Sparrow.\t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"1707,1", "headline":"Acts of Union", "text":"In the reign of Queen Anne, the Kingdom of England joins with the Kingdom of Scotland to be \"United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain\".", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/great-britain-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\tUnion Jack of Great Britain\t\t
Public Domain image" } }, { "startDate":"1761,1", "headline":"Duke of Bridgewater", "text":"Berkhamsted Castle and its estate are separated. The parkland is leased to Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, the \"Canal Duke\". The castle ruins remain under direct control of the Duchy of Cornwall.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/third-duke-of-bridgewater-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"1798,1", "headline":"The Grand Junction Canal", "text":"As the Industrial Revolution gets underway, the Grand Junction Canal Company builds a new canal between the Midlands and London, passing right in front of Berkhamsted Castle. Peacock & Willetts boat-building yard is established at the new Castle Wharf, and the first vessel to be launched in 1801 is a river barge named Berkhamsted Castle<\/em>, beginning a 125-year tradition of boat-building.", "asset": { "media":"", "credit":"", "caption": "" } }, { "startDate":"1809,1", "headline":"Earl of Bridgewater", "text":"

In 1809, John Egerton, 7th Earl of Bridgewater purchases the demesne (manorial lands) of Berkhamsted.<\/p>", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/john-egerton-7th-earl-bridgewater-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\t\t\t\t\t\t
Public Domain image" } }, { "startDate":"1837,1", "headline":"The coming of the railways", "text":"At the height of the Industrial Revolution, railway engineer Robert Stephenson builds the London and Birmingham Railway, and the route passes very close to the Berkhamsted Castle ruins. Navvies drain the southern part of the outer moat and demolish the ruins of the barbican gate to allow construction of the railway embankment.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/berkhampstead-railway-station-1838-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "Drawing of Berkhamsted railway station in 1838 by George Haydock Dodgson; the Castle site is off to the left
Public Domain image" } }, { "startDate":"1850,1", "headline":"Victorian Leisure in the Castle Ruins", "text":"In the mid-19th and early 20th centuries, the castle grounds are frequently used for public events. Mechanics' fetes are held here, and a Grand Bazaar is held to raise funds for the new town hall, designed by Edward Buckton-Lamb.\u00a0Cricket matches and golf tournaments are played in the bailey, and musket practice also takes place.", "asset": { "media":"", "credit":"", "caption": "" } }, { "startDate":"1861,1", "headline":"J.R. Crawford’s Poem", "text":"J.R. Crawford, a Master of Berkhamsted School, publishes an elegaic poem, \"Berkhampsted Castle, an Historical Reverie\"I sit alone on the Castle-mound<\/em>And muse in silence on its slow decay.<\/em>A tranquil melancholy reigns around,<\/em>And o'er my soul asserts its thoughtful sway.<\/em>", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/castle-ruins-postcard-valentine-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t1903 postcard, the Castle Ruins, Berkhamstead\t\t
Public Domain image" } }, { "startDate":"1864,1", "headline":"Earl Brownlow", "text":"

The estates and park surrounding the castle are sold off altogether by the Duchy of Cornwall to John Egerton-Cust, 2nd Earl Brownlow. He also agrees to rent the castle from the Duchy for a nominal rent.<\/p>", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/brownlow-arms-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\t\t\t\t\t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"1913,1", "headline":"Balloon landing", "text":"Prior to World War I, Britain is developing small airships to compete with Germany's Zeppelin airships. In 1913, a British Army \u2018Gamma\u2019 dirigible balloon lands in the castle grounds,\u00a0 captained by J.N. Fletcher, an old boy of Berkhamsted School. Standing in the crowd is a young schoolboy named Graham Greene.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/dirgible-balloon-landing-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\t\t\t\t\t\t
\u00a9 BLHMS" } }, { "startDate":"1922,1", "headline":"Historical Pageant", "text":"In July 1922 the first Berkhamsted Pageant is held in the castle grounds to commemorate the 700th anniversary of the consecration of St Peter\u2019s Church. Parishioners dress up in historical costumes and put on a play, telling the story of Berkhamsted.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/pageant-1922-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "Players in costume at the 1922 Pageant
" } }, { "startDate":"1929,1", "headline":"Office of Works", "text":"On 24th December 1929, the Duchy of Cornwall places Berkhamsted Castle into the Guardianship of the Office of Works, a government department.The following year, extensive works begin on the Castle site, including clearing the many trees that have grown in the ruins, and digging in the bailey. During clearance of the moats, a crossbow stave is discovered, ", "asset": { "media":"", "credit":"", "caption": "" } }, { "startDate":"1935,1", "headline":"Edward, Prince of Wales Visits the Castle", "text":"Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII), visits Berkhamsted. He gives an address at Berkhamsted School, prior to visiting the castle. He is the first Duke of Cornwall to see his Manor of Berkhamsted since 1616.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/prince-of-wales-visit-1935-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\tEdward, Prince of Wales visits the castle\t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"1939,1", "headline":"London Statues in WWII", "text":"During World War II, many art treasures are removed from London to protect them from destruction. Four famous London statues are secretly moved to Berkhamsted Castle for safekeeping.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/london-statues-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"1962,1", "headline":"Archaeological excavations", "text":"

Archaeological excavations are carried out at the SE tower of Berkhamsted Castle in 1962 and again in 1967, revealing the construction techniques of the flint curtain wall and tower.\u00a0Items of pottery dated c 1250 are excavated is from a pit inside the tower.\u00a0An English Heritage report of the findings describes Berkhamsted Castle as a \"high-status residence\" with a deer park and an administrative centre for its estates.<\/p>", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/palace-tower-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\tBerkhamsted Castle Palace Tower\t\t
\u00a9 Martin Evening" } }, { "startDate":"1966,1", "headline":"900th anniversary of the Norman Conquest", "text":"A town pageant is held to mark the 900th anniversary of the Norman Conquest. Local people act out episodes in history, including the crowning of William the Conqueror, the siege of the castle. the Battle of Berkhamsted Common, and the visit of King Louis XVIII\u2019s of France,", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/pageant-1966-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"1967,1", "headline":"Graham Greene", "text":"Berkhamsted author Graham Greene mentions Berkhamsted Castle frequently in his stories set in Berkhamsted. In his 1967 short story Doctor Crombie<\/em> is the castle appears as\u00a0 \"Bankstead Castle\".", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/graham-greene-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\tGraham Greene \t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"1983,1", "headline":"English Heritage formed", "text":"

Berkhamsted Castle is brought under the care of the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England, a government body which operates under the name English Heritage.<\/p>

\"The<\/a> <\/div>

Read more:<\/small>
The Castle Site<\/a><\/p> <\/div><\/div>", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/english-heritage-old-logo.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
\u00a9 English Heritage 1983" } }, { "startDate":"2013,1", "headline":"Alderney Tapestry", "text":"A group of embroiderers on the Island of Alderney completes a modern reproduction of the Bayeux Tapestry, depicting the \"missing\" scenes: the surrender of the Saxons at Berkhamsted, William's coronation and the building of the Tower of London.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/alderney-tapestry-berkhamsted-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "The submission at Berkhamsted (Berchehasteda) \n- 2013 reconstruction of the last missing panels of the Bayeux Tapestry
\u00a9 Alderney Bayeux Tapestry Finale 2013" } }, { "startDate":"2015,1", "headline":"Historic England formed", "text":"

Historic England takes over the statutory & conservation remit for ancient monuments from English Heritage. The management of historic properties and visitor experience continues to be run by English Heritage, including Berkhamsted Castle.<\/p>

\"The<\/a> <\/div>

Read more:<\/small>
The Castle Site<\/a><\/p> <\/div><\/div>", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/eh-he-logos-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
\u00a9 English Heritage" } }, { "startDate":"2016,1", "headline":"950th Anniversary of the Norman Conquest", "text":"In 2016, Berkhamsted marks the occasion of the 950th anniversary of the Norman Conquest of England in 1066.", "asset": { "media":"https://www.berkhamstedcastle.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/celebrations-950th-1024x576.jpg", "credit":"", "caption": "\n\t\t\t\t\t\t
" } }, { "startDate":"2018,1", "headline":"Berkhamsted Castle Trust formed", "text":"

Berkhamsted Castle Trust is established by local volunteers, with the support and encouragement of English Heritage, to promote education about the history of Berkhamsted Castle and to assist English Heritage with the visitor experience and site preservation & maintenance.<\/p>